Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of progressive neurological disability in the 20-50 year age group. The Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis is vast, early diagnosis is difficult because MS is characterised by widespread neurologic lesions that cannot be explained by a single anatomical lesion, and the various signs and symptoms are subject to irregular exacerbations and remissions. The most important issue in diagnosis is the need for a high index of suspicion.
What Causes MS? MS is a primary demyelinating disorder with demyelination occurring in plaques throughout the white matter of the brain, brainstem, spinal cord and optic nerves. The clinical features depend on their location.
Clinical features – Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis
> more common in females > peak age of onset is in the fourth decade > symptoms develop over several days but can be sudden > transient motor and sensory disturbances > upper motor neurone signs > monosymptomatic initially in about 80% > multiple symptoms initially in about 20% > common initial symptoms include: > visual disturbances of optic neuritis – blurred vision or loss of vision in one eye (sometimes both) – central scotoma with pain on eye movement (looks like unilateral papilloedema) > diplopia (brainstem lesion) > weakness in one or both legs, paraparesis or hemiparesis > sensory impairment in the lower limbs and trunk – band-like sensations – numbness, paraesthesia – clumsiness of limb (loss of position sense) – feeling as though walking on cotton wool > vertigo (brainstem lesion) > subsequent remissions and exacerbations that vary from one individual to another > there is a progressive form especially in women around 50 years
Neurological examination The findings depend on the site of the lesion or lesions and include optic atrophy, weakness, hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, nystagmus (two types: cerebellar or ataxic), ataxia, incoordination and regional impairment of sensation.
Signs and Symptoms of MS causing diagnostic confusion > bladder disturbances, including retention of urine and urgency > ‘useless hand’ due to loss of position sense > facial palsy > trigeminal neuralgia > psychiatric symptoms
In established disease common sign and symptoms of ms are fatigue, impotence and bladder disturbances.
How is MS Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of MS is clinical and depends on the following determinants:
Lesions affect the CNS white matter.
Lesions are invariably UMN.
>1 part of CNS is involved, although not necessarily at time of presentation.
Episodes are separated in time (it is possible to make a diagnosis with the first episode).
Other neurological diseases such as infections (e.g. encephalitis), malignancies, spinal cord compression, spinocerebellar degeneration and others must be excluded.
For Diagnosing MS, some Lab and Imaging are needed
Lumbar puncture: oligoclonal IgG detected in CSF in 90% of cases 8 (only if necessary)
Visual evoked potentials: abnormal in about 90% of cases
CT scan: rarely demonstrates MS lesions but useful in excluding other pathology
MRI scan: usually abnormal, demonstrating MS lesions in about 90% of cases 8
Having multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease which damages the nerves, can be quite a ride. A patient is in pain at a time then it becomes better at another.
There are different forms of MS, one of which is relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), the most common form, in which a patient can have sudden attacks followed by a period of stability. In this kind of MS, patients are most likely to experience flare-ups a month after the last attack happened. During a relapse a patient may have severe urinary problems, troubled sexual functions, and depression, among others. These symptoms may simultaneously appear during a relapse or may even be worse than the previous occurrence. It is also possible for a new symptom to arise.
Another type of MS which is progressive-relapsing ultimately gets worse over time. Although uncommon, this disease gives no assurance for remission. In contrast to other forms of MS, RRMS gives the patient some time to feel better. Symptom occurrences might be mild or severe but it will wear off eventually since after the experience of a relapse, there will be a remission. When MS remits, it means that the condition of someone with the said illness shows improvement. For people who have Relapsing remitting MS symptoms thus, chances for recovery are higher. At least during remission, a patient with RRMS feels stronger, with fewer or no attacks that can last longer than expected.
A remission does not guarantee though that a patient’s condition will no longer deteriorate. In due course, RRMS will develop into a secondary progressive MS wherein a relapse seldom happens while the disease becomes even worse.
Most RRMS patients are women and Caucasians and they start to experience a relapse at age 20, based on estimates. Doctors could not give a definite list of causes for having this disease but they associate the relapse with pollutants or lack of vitamin D which primarily aids in the absorption of calcium in the body. Specialists are open to the possibility that RRMS have something to do with genes although they do not deem it necessarily hereditary.
Due to the unpredictability of relapsing-remitting MS, a patient might feel dejected because any moment the pain will again strike. In the same manner, RRMS sheds light on the possibility of living like nothing had gone wrong during relapses. Upon remission, patients will experience how it feels again to be pain-free.
What could be the worse reaction of a patient with RRMS symptoms? Perhaps, sulking under the covers and failing to acknowledge that non-remitting sickness does not even give people the chance to live like how most normal people do.
Autoimmune disease is a pathological condition which is caused by an adaptive autoimmune response directed against an antigen within the body of the host. In other words, the body mistakenly attacks its own cells. The disease can affect every part of the human body. It may be systemic, affect single organs or organ systems or attacking several organ systems simultaneously. Thus, the symptoms are vary correspondingly depend on which parts of the body are attacked by the immune system and on the development of the disease. However, these definitions can be unclear since it is often difficult to differentiate the causality when dealing with a human disease. It is very beneficial to consider the evidence of an autoimmune etiology of a human disease with three degrees of stringency.
Direct evidence Indirect evidence Circumstantial evidence
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE – CRITERIA
How to determine if autoimmunity is the cause of the disease rather than an accompanying feature or an outcome? The demonstration of auto-antibodies is the first step in the diagnosis of these diseases, however the antibodies might not be the actual pathogens of the disease. Autoantibodies can occur naturally and are common in all immunologically competent person and might even increase nonspecifically while in the course of disease or injury. Hence, the miniscule presence of autoantibodies does not automatically determine a cause-and-effect relationship, because the autoantibodies might be the result, not the cause, of the disease process. However it is important to emphasize, that the presence of autoantibody responses has great value in diagnosing and prognosing numerous human diseases.
Autoantibodies may be present many years before the diagnosis of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and antiphospholipid syndrome. Combined with genetic information or family history, the presence of autoantibodies may be highly predictive of the later onset of an autoimmune disorder.
Direct evidence – The disease can be produced by showing autoimmune response. Direct evidence usually involves transfer of autoantibody from a patient to a healthy recipient, either an animal or a human. A few instances of such transfers have been successfully performed.
Reproduction of pemphigus by injection of patient serum into a neonatal mouse. Maternal-fetal transmission (transplacental transmission) of myastenia gravis, Graves’ disease, and the complete heart block associated with lupus and Sjögren’s disease. The clinical manifestations in the offspring are temporary, because the autoantibody in these cases is provided through passive transfer of serum from the mother.
Indirect evidence – The second level of proof of causality is indirect evidence which requires the availability of an appropriate animal model where the necessary transfer studies can be carried out. Different animal models are implemented :
Reproduction of disease in animals via immunization with the appropriate antigen. Autoimmune thyroiditis in the mouse after immunization with thyroglobulin – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (chronic autoimmune thyroiditis). Myocarditis after immunization of susceptible mice with murine myosin. Naturally occurring disease in animals that resembles its human counterpart. Many aspects that resemble human SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) have been found in particular genetic strains of mice. A disease closely resembling Type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes. Disease resulting from manipulation of the immune system. Models of inflammatory bowel disease have been described in animals in which particular cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 have been eliminated. Autoimmune dilated cardiomyopathy develop in mice which are deficient in programmed cell death-1 (PD-) immuno-inhibitory coreceptor.
Circumstantial evidence – This is the lowest level of proof, which is the one most commonly available to connect a mysterious human disease to autoimmunity.
The hazards of using this kind of evidence as the basis for concluding that a disease is caused by autoimmunity have been previously described. Natural autoantibodies are common and might rise nonspecifically in the course of a disease process. Autoimmune diseases tend to cluster, maybe simply because they share a number of genetic susceptibility traits. For examples, a single person will have more than one autoimmune disease, and family members share the very same or even other autoimmune diseases. A particular bias to certain HLA haplotypes is shown by most of the autoimmune diseases, usually the Class II category. Because genes that are important in regulating the immune response are encoded by the Class II Major Histocompability Complex (MHC), some rational association may exist between the genetic constitution and susceptibility to a specific autoimmune disease. Most, but not all, autoimmune diseases are more common in women than men. Therefore, a sex bias provides increased circumstantial evidence of an autoimmune etiology. In addition, new information on the differing pathogenic mechanisms involved in men and women has been provided by comparing of the sex-based differences in autoimmune diseases. A disease’s response to immunosuppressive therapy is usually an important clinical indicator of autoimmune etiology. If effective symptomatic therapy can be obtained by immunosuppression, therefore, demonstrating the etiologic agent of the disease may seem less essential.
What is Rheumatoid arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of autoimmune diseases which is a chronic or long-term inflammatory condition. RA is the commonest chronic inflammatory polyarthritis and affects about 3% of the population. The symptoms develop gradually, and can vary from a mild to a most severe debilitating expression. It may include joint pain, stiffness, and swelling. The condition can affect many tissues throughout the body, but the joints are usually most severely affected. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS RISK FACTORS – The particular cause of rheumatoid arthritis is still not known yet. Susceptibility factors and Initiating factors, however, have been suspected as factors that can affect a person’s risk.
Susceptibility factors – RA most likely develops when a susceptible person is exposed to factors that start the inflammatory process. Heredity, gender, and genes mostly determine a person’s chance of developing rheumatoid arthritis. Approximately 1 per 100 individuals has rheumatoid arthritis.
Heredity – RA is not an inherited disease. Genes do not cause rheumatoid arthritis, they only affect the risk of disease’ development. Gender – Gender seems to participate in a major role in a person’s susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Females are about 3 times more likely than males. Specific genes – Person with certain variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are more likely to acquire rheumatoid arthritis. Initiating factors – Many people who have HLA genes never develop the disease. In fact, when one identical twin has rheumatoid arthritis, the likelihood that the other will develop disease is only about 1 in 3. This indicates that other factors must be necessary for a person to develop RA.
Infection – Bacteria or viruses may be one of the factors that initiate rheumatoid arthritis. Cigarette smoking – Cigarette smoking may increase the risk of developing RA and also can increase the likelihood the severity should it occurs. Stress – Stressful events such as accidents, divorce and grief are more common in people with RA in the six months prior their diagnosis.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS SYMPTOMS – In most people RA begins with the insidious onset of pain and stiffness of the small joints of the hands and feet which is on-going rather than fleeting and mainly affects the fingers where symmetrical involvement of the PIP joints produces spindling while the metacarpophalangeal joints (joints in the middle of the fingers) develop diffuse thickening as does the wrist. Early symptoms may include fatigue, muscle pain, a low-grade fever, weight loss, and numbness and tingling in the hands. In some cases, these symptoms occur before joint pain or stiffness is noticeable. In 25% of cases RA presents as arthritis of a single joint such as the knee, a situation leading to confusion with Lyme disease or a spondyloarthropathy.
Hands : MCP and PIP joints, DIP joints (30%) Wrist and elbows Feet : MTP joints, tarsal joints (not IP joints), ankle Knees (common) and hip (delayed—up to 50%) Shoulder (glenohumeral) joints Temporomandibular joints Cervical spine Joint symptoms – Usually begin gradually and include pain and stiffness, redness, warmth to the touch, and joint swelling. The joint stiffness is most bothersome in the morning and after sitting still for a period of time. The stiffness can persist for more than one hour.
rheumatoid arthritis symptoms
Hands – The joints of the hands are often the very first joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis. Between 1 and 5 % of people with rheumatoid arthritis develop carpal tunnel syndrome because swelling compresses a nerve that runs through the wrist which is characterized by weakness, tingling, and numbness of certain areas of the hand. Certain characteristic hand deformities can occur with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. swan neck deformities and boutonniere deformities, and may drift together in the direction of the small finger. The tendons on the back of the hand may become very prominent and tight, called the bow string sign.
Wrist – The wrist is the most commonly affected joint of the arm in people with rheumatoid arthritis. In the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis, it may become difficult to bend the wrist backward. Elbow – Rheumatoid arthritis may cause inflammation of the elbow. Swelling of this joint may compress nerves that travel through the arm and cause numbness or tingling in the fingers. Shoulder – The shoulder may be inflamed in the later stages of rheumatoid arthritis, causing pain and limited motion. Foot – The joints of the feet are often affected in the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis, especially the joints at the base of the toes. Ankle – Rheumatoid arthritis may cause inflammation of the ankle. Inflammation of this joint may cause nerve damage, leading to numbness and tingling in the foot.
Knee – Rheumatoid arthritis may cause swelling of the knee, difficulty bending the knee, excessive looseness of the ligaments that surround and support the knee, and damage of the ends of the bones that meet at the knee. RA may cause the formation of a Baker’s cyst (a cyst filled with joint fluid and located in the hollow space at the back of the knee). Hips – The hips may become inflamed in the later stages of rheumatoid arthritis. Pain in the hips may make it difficult to walk. Cervical spine – Rheumatoid arthritis may cause inflammation of the cervical spine, which is the area between the shoulders and the base of the head. Cricoarytenoid joint -In about 30 % of people with rheumatoid arthritis, there is inflammation of a joint near the windpipe called the cricoarytenoid joint. Inflammation of this joint can cause hoarseness and difficulty breathing. Other symptoms – Although joint problems are the most commonly known issues in rheumatoid arthritis, the condition can be associated with a variety of other problems.
Rheumatoid nodule – Rheumatoid nodule is painless lumps that appear beneath the skin. The nodule may move easily when touched or they may be fixed to deeper tissues. Felty’s Syndrome : Characterized by an abnormally enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). Amyloidosis : Infiltration of the liver, kidneys, spleen and other tissues with amyloid (starch like substance). Inflammatory conditions – Rheumatoid arthritis may produce a variety of other symptoms, depending on which tissues are inflamed. Pericarditis : Inflammation of the pericardium, tissue lining the chest cavity and surrounding the heart that may cause chest pain and difficulty breathing. Fibrosing Alveolitis : Inflammation of the lung that is not due to infection may cause shortness of breath and a dry cough. Peripheral sensory neuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex : Abnormal nerve function may cause numbness, tingling, or weakness. Sjögren’s syndrome : Dry eyes and dry mouth. women may develop vaginal dryness due to Sjögren’s syndrome, which can cause pain with sexual intercourse. Inflammation of the white part of the eye may cause pain or vision problems. Vasculitis – Inflammation of the blood vessels, may cause a wide variety of symptoms, depends on the location. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DIAGNOSIS – There is no single test used to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the diagnosis is based upon many factors, including the characteristic signs and symptoms, the results of laboratory tests, and the results of x-rays.
American Rheumatism Association: criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
Morning stiffness Pain on motion or tenderness in at least one joint Swelling of one joint, representing soft tissue or fluid Swelling of at least one other joint (soft tissue or fluid) with an interval free of symptoms no longer than three (3) months Symmetrical joint swelling (simultaneous involvement of the same joint, right and left) Subcutaneous nodules over bony prominences, extensor surfaces or near joints Typical X-ray changes that must include demineralisation in periarticular bone as an index of inflammation Positive test for rheumatoid factor in the serum Synovial fluid – a poor mucin clot formation on adding synovial fluid to dilute acetic acid
Synovial histopathology consistent with RA:
(a) marked villous hypertrophy
(b) proliferation of synovial cells
(c) lymphocyte plus plasma cell infiltration in subsynovium
(d) fibrin deposition within or upon microvilli
Characteristic histopathology of rheumatoid nodules biopsied from any site
Rheumatoid arthritis treatments participate in an essential role in controlling the inflammation of the disorder and reducing joint destruction. The treatment incorporates a combination of drug therapy and other non-drug therapies, and in some cases it involve surgery. The treatment of RA must be customised to each patient’s specific case, which includes the severity of the disease, the side effects and the effectiveness of specific therapies.
The treatments selection may be different for a person with RA who has other illnesses, such as liver or kidneys disease. In order to create an effective and acceptable plan for treating rheumatoid arthritis, it is very important to work with a healthcare provider.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS TREATMENT – GENERAL PRINCIPLES
The purpose of rheumatoid arthritis treatment is to control a patient’s signs and symptoms, to avoid joint damage, and to maintain quality of life and ability to function of the patient. The initial treatment of RA aims to reduce or to eliminate inflammation. Many drugs for treating rheumatoid arthritis have potentially serious side effects. Doctors Usually prescribe medications with the fewest side effects first, or the risk of side effects from treatment must be weighed against the benefits.
Long-term medical care with routinly scheduled visits is important for the successful treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This care incorporates medical visits and tests to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy and check for side effects.
Nonpharmacologic therapies are treatments other than medications and are the basic foundation of treatment for all person suffering RA. There are a vast variety of non-medication treatments available.
Education and counselling can assist you to better comprehend the characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and deal with the challenges of this condition.
Biofeedback and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy may help in controlling Rheumatoid Arthritis symptoms.
Rest – Swollen joints should be rested, as exhaustion is a common symptom of rheumatoid arthritis but physical fitness should be maintained. If joint pain or limited joint movement interferes with exercising, the physical and occupational therapists should be looked for assistance with fitness programs,
Exercise is essential as inactivity can lead to a loss of joint motion, contractions, and a loss of muscle strength. Person with rheumatoid arthritis tends to become inactive as the pain and stiffness prompted. As a result, weakness decreases joint stability and increases fatigue over the time.
Physical therapy can alleviate pain, help maintain joint structure and function and minimise inflammation for patients with RA. Specific types of physical therapy are accustomed to address specific effects of RA such as the application of heat or cold to alleviate pain or stiffness, a consultation with a podiatrist who can design foot orthotics (equipments that make sure correct position of the foot) and supportive footwear. Reduce inflammation of the sheaths surrounding tendons (tenosynovitis) by Ultrasound.
Nutrition and dietary therapy – Dietary therapy helps to make sure that the patient eat a sufficient amount of calories and nutrients. Weight reduction might be advised for over weight and obese people to minimise pressure on swollen joints. Persons with rheumatoid arthritis possess a higher risk of getting coronary artery disease. Hypercholesterolaemia is one risk factor for coronary disease that can respond to modifications in diet. Arthritis pain and joint swelling have been modestly improved by fish oils and some plant oils, such as borage seed oil. However, there is no diet that can cure rheumatoid arthritis, neither herbal nor nutritional supplements, such as collagen or cartilage; these treatments can be harmful and are not generally recommended.
Smoking and alcohol – Studies have shown that smoking is a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis and smoking cessation can improve disease. Smokers need to quit totally. Moderation of alcohol consumption is not hazardous to rheumatoid arthritis, event hough it might rise the chance of liver destruction from some drugs such as methotrexate.
Measures to minimise bone loss – Rheumatoid arthritis causes bone loss, that can lead to osteoporosis. The likelihood of bone loss is increase in persons who are inactive, and persons who are taking glucocorticoids, such as prednisone.
Propolis is a by-product in the form of sap produced by honey bees. When bees mix tree sap with natural substances from the body, the bees will produce a greenish-brown sticky substance to coat their hives. Well, this greenish-brown sticky substance is called propolis. Honey bees will collect sap from various plants to fill in the gaps and holes in their hives. This is done to protect the nest from microbes and predatory animals. Propolis is one of the herbal medicines that has been known for thousands of years and is believed to be good for the health of the body. Humans in ancient civilizations have used this herbal medicine to help heal and prevent various kinds of health disorders and certain diseases. Some people believe that regular consumption of propolis can help increase your immune system, so your risk of getting an infection or disease is lower. Some infections that are believed to be treated with propolis honey include canker sores, warts, and digestive disorders such as H. pylori infection which causes stomach ulcers.
Benefits of Propolis :
Heals wounds on the skin A study also mentions that propolis can speed up the wound healing process. Because propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties.
Control blood sugar and cholesterol levels Some research shows that propolis can keep blood sugar levels stable and prevent insulin resistance which can cause type 2 diabetes. In addition, propolis is also useful for reducing bad cholesterol (LDL) and increasing good cholesterol (HDL). This effect makes propolis good for consumption to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart disease.
Relieve pain and swelling in the joints Pain and swelling in the joints are often caused by inflammation, for example in osteoarthritis. This disease can be treated with medication, adequate rest time, and maintaining ideal body weight.
Inhibit the growth of cancer cells Propolis has antioxidant compounds that can inhibit the growth of cancer cells. These antioxidant compounds also play an important role in protecting the body’s cells from free radical damage.
Strengthens the immune system Having a strong immune system is very important so that the body is not susceptible to disease. Some research shows that propolis can keep the immune system strong, so the body is not susceptible to infection. To keep your immune system strong, you need to do other ways, such as regular exercise, eating nutritious foods, getting enough rest, and reducing stress.
Maintain brain function and health Propolis is also beneficial for brain health and function. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant substances in propolis are known to support the process of repairing nerve and brain tissue and improve memory. Some research even shows that consuming propolis appears to reduce the risk of developing dementia or dementia.
Helicobacter pylori infection is a sickness resulting from Helicobacter pylori, that’s a bacterium that can stay in the stomach. This contamination can occur when bacteria assault and damage the belly wall. Under ordinary conditions, the stomach will secrete acid to kill the micro organism that input the digestive tract with meals. But, Helicobacter pylori can stay in acid, so belly acid becomes ineffective in killing the microorganism. Helicobacter pylori infection can motive digestive tract diseases, including gastritis (acute or continual ulcer), gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer.
Causes of Helicobacter pylori infection • Oral contact or saliva between an affected person and a wholesome person • Fecal-oral, particularly via the feces of patients who are not cleaned properly • Intake of water or food contaminated with micro organism
Signs of Helicobacter pylori contamination • Stomach ache, in particular on an empty belly or at night time • Bloated • Nausea and vomiting • Fever • Immoderate burping • Weight reduction • Lack of appetite • Bloody or darkish stools
Remedy of Helicobacter pylori infection is normally achieved by means of giving an aggregate of or extra types of antibiotics and tablets which could lessen stomach acid. To hurry up recovery and prevent the circumstance from worsening, patients are recommended to avoid ingredients that may avoid restoration, along with spicy and acidic foods. In addition, patients are also cautioned not to consume alcoholic liquids and no longer to smoke.
How to avoid getting infected with H. Pylori? • Washing your arms with soap and water. It is very vital to do this after the usage of the bathroom and before consuming. • Ensuring all meals you consume have been cleaned and cooked adequately • Making sure that your consuming water is safe
Manuka honey has antibacterial, antiviral, anti inflammatory, and antioxidant homes. It receives its antibacterial results from an energetic element referred to as methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO is created in manuka honey by way of converting any other compound called dihydroxyacetone (DHA). The better the concentration of MGO, the stronger the antibacterial effect of manuka honey. Manuka honey is used as a herbal ointment for wounds of all kinds and can also treat other situations, from acne to sinus problems.
• Facilitates treat wounds The antioxidant and antibacterial homes of manuka are manuka honey’s Key elements inside the remedy for wounds. Manuka honey has a lower pH than maximum honey, which could assist promote top-quality wound recuperation.
• Facilitates oral health Studies display that manuka honey protects towards the formation of plaque, which can save you from gingivitis (inflammation of the gums).
• Helps Sore Throat Honey can help reduce infection and combat micro organism that reason a sore throat. Studies suggests that folks that use Manuka honey have fewer Streptococcus mutants, a form of bacteria that causes sore throats.
• Allows treating pimples Manuka honey may also Moisturize pores and skin thru fructose, glucose, and a few amino acids contained in honey. It has effective anti inflammatory and antibacterial properties
Anthogenol utilizes fifty years of analysis to figure at a cellular level to shield the body from injury caused by free radicals. Anthogenol capsules contain clinically-proven inhibitor OPCs to support circulatory system health, support animal tissue and connective tissue health, support bone health and bone mineralization, support skin and nail health, and relieve symptoms of delicate unhealthy veins. The distinctive formula allows customers to seem and feel younger, harnessing full-body anti-aging support from within out. Anthogenol, a naturally derived supplement using MASQUELIER’s Original OPCs, is a powerful antioxidants derived from Grape seed extract. Academician Masquelier perfected the extraction method and launched this potent staple that has currently been used therapeutically for several years globally. The proprietary isolation process creates an extremely bioavailable extract utilizing simply 1% of the Grape Seed, so Anthogenol can not be compared to the other Grape seed extract on the market. The benefit of Anthogenol :
Healthy circulation • Maintaining healthy blood circulation • Reduces the occurrence of varicose veins and spider veins • Support blood circulation to the peripheral areas of the body (legs, hands and feet)
Heart and Eye Health • Can help prevent enzyme breakdown in collagen for the maintenance of heart health • Provides nutritional support to protect the heart and eye health
Healthy Skin, Hair and Nails • Reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles • Improves skin elasticity and overall quality • Can help reduce dark spots • Can help increase hair thickness and nail strength
Healthy Bones • Assist healthy bone development • Support bone health and bone mineralization
Cardiovascular Anthogenol supports cardiovascular system health, blood capillary health, and blood vessel health.
Powerful Antioxidant Anthogenol contains high potency antioxidants which protect the body from the damaging effects of free radicals.
Healthy Collagen Support Anthogenol promotes collagen formation, supporting the health of tendons, skin, connective tissues, and strong nails.
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